Historic Spacecraft Historic Spacecraft Logo

Apollo Space Capsules

Apollo CSM Illustration
Apollo Command and Service Module
Saturn 5 Rocket Saturn SA-206 rocket illustration

Apollo Spacecraft

Apollo Command and Service modules were flown by the United States between 1966 and 1975. The spacecraft were grouped into two major configurations. Early missions were conducted using Block 1 spacecraft, while later flights, including all lunar missions, were flown using Block 2 spacecraft.

Apollo capsules flew on both Saturn IB and Saturn 5 Rockets (right).

Block 1 Spacecraft

Block 1 spacecraft did not have docking capabilities and were flown in Earth orbit only. A number of test flights, flown using Saturn IB and Saturn 5 boosters, were conducted.

The CM-012 capsule, better known as Apollo1, was destroyed in a fire while conducting tests on the launch pad. The tragedy resulted in the loss of astronauts Grissom, White, and Chaffee.

Block 2 Spacecraft

Block 2 command modules included many improvements over the earlier models. Significant changes included an outward opening hatch that could be quickly opened, and docking equipment allowing operations with the Apollo Lunar Module.

Eleven block 2 command modules were flown in support of project Apollo. Nine missions flew to the Moon, and six successful landings were accomplished using the lunar module.

Three command modules were flown to the Skylab space station. Each carried three astronauts to and from the station.

The final Apollo command module to fly was CM-111. Flown as the American half of the Apollo-Soyuz test project, the spacecraft successfully docked with the Russian Soyuz 19 spacecraft in July of 1975.



Apollo Command Module Missions
MissionLaunch
Date
RocketCommand
Module
Lunar
Module
Mission
AS-201 1966 AS-201 CM-009 --- Suborbital flight.
AS-202 1966 AS-202 CM-011A --- Suborbital flight.
Apollo 1 1967 AS-204 CM-012 --- Destroyed by fire while on pad.
Apollo 4 1967 AS-501 CM-017 --- Earth orbit.
Apollo 5 1968 AS-502 CM-020 --- Earth orbit.
Apollo 7 1968 AS-205 CM-101 --- Earth orbit.
Apollo 8 1968 AS-503 CM-103 --- Lunar orbit.
Apollo 9 1969 AS-504 CM-104 Gumdrop LM-3 Spider First manned test of Lunar Module.
Apollo 101969 AS-505 CM-106 Charlie Brown LM-4 Snoopy Tested LM in Lunar orbit.
Apollo 111969 AS-506 CM-107 Columbia LM-5 Eagle Lunar landing.
Apollo 121969 AS-507 CM-108 Yankee Clipper LM-6 Intrepid Lunar landing.
Apollo 131970 AS-508 CM-109 Odyssey LM-7 Aquarius Aborted Lunar landing attempt.
Apollo 141971 AS-509 CM-110 Kitty Hawk LM-8 Antares Lunar landing.
Apollo 151971 AS-510 CM-112 Endeavour LM-10 Falcon Lunar landing.
Apollo 161972 AS-511 CM-113 Casper LM-11 Orion Lunar landing.
Apollo 171972 AS-512 CM-114 America LM-12 ChallengerLunar landing.
Skylab 21973 AS-206 CM-116 --- Docked With Skylab.
Skylab 31973 AS-207 CM-117 --- Docked With Skylab.
Skylab 41973 AS-208 CM-118 --- Docked With Skylab.
Apollo-Soyuz1975 AS-210 CM-111 --- Docked With Soyuz 19.
 

Apollo 8 Command Module (CM-103)

Launched on December 21, 1968, Apollo 8 was the first crewed mission to orbit the Moon. The crew included Frank Borman (Mission Commander), James Lovell (Command Module Pilot), and William Anders (Lunar Module Pilot). These photos were taken at the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry. (Photos: Richard Kruse, 2008)

Apollo 8 Capsule Port Side Apollo 8 Capsule Front Apollo 8 Capsule Starbord Side Apollo 8 Drogue Mortor Apollo 8 Main Parachute Compartment Apollo 8 Hatch Interior Apollo 8 Hatch Exterior Apollo 8 Capsule

Apollo 9 (CM-104) Exterior Photos

Apollo 9 (AS-504) was launched to Earth orbit on March 3, 1969. Astronauts McDivitt, Schweickart and Scott conducted the first manned test of the Lunar Module (LM-3) and the Apollo space suits. The highly successful mission returned to Earth on March 13, 1969. These photos were taken at the Michigan Space and Science Center. (Photos: Richard Kruse, 2002)

Apollo 9 Capsule Apollo 9 roll thruster Apollo 9 Spacecraft Apollo 9 Spacecraft Apollo 9 Spacecraft Apollo 9 Pitch Thruster Apollo 9 Hatch Apollo 9 Heat Shield
 

Apollo 9 (CM-104) Interior Photos

High resolution photos of the Apollo 9 space capsule interior. Stewart Bailey took these photos at the Michigan Space and Science Center during the late 1990s. The Apollo 9 is now on display at The San Diego Aerospace Museum. (Photos: Stewart Bailey)

Apollo 9 Main Control Panel

Apollo 9 Control Panel Apollo 9 Control Panel left Apollo 9 Control Panel center Apollo 9 Control Panel right Apollo 9 Control Panel Apollo 9 Control Panel Apollo 9 Control Panel Apollo 9 Control Panel Apollo 9 Control Panel Apollo 9 Control Panel Apollo 9 Control Panel
 

Apollo 9 Navigation Panel

Apollo 9 Navigation Apollo 9 Navigation Apollo 9 Navigation Apollo 9 Navigation
 

Apollo 9 Tunnel Area

Apollo 9 Docking Tunnel Apollo 9 Docking Tunnel Apollo 9 Docking Tunnel Apollo 9 Docking Tunnel Apollo 9 Docking Tunnel Apollo 9 Docking Tunnel Apollo 9 Docking Tunnel Apollo 9 Docking Tunnel
 

Apollo 9 Aft Equipment Bay

Apollo 9 Apollo 9 Apollo 9 Apollo 9
 

Apollo 9 Miscellaneous

Apollo 9 center couch Apollo 9 struts Apollo 9 food preparation water panel Apollo 9 suit circuit return valve Apollo 9 waste disposal Apollo 9 waste disposal Apollo 9 waste management Apollo 9 storage Apollo 9 storage

Apollo CSM (CSM-105)

Command and Service Module (CSM-105) was originally used for acoustic and vibration testing. The spacecraft is now part of the Apollo-Soyuz (ASTP) display at the National Air and Space Museum. (Photos: Richard Kruse, 2008)

Apollo CSM (CSM-105) Apollo CSM (CSM-105) Apollo CSM (CSM-105) Apollo CSM (CSM-105)

Apollo 10 (CM-106)

Apollo 10 Command Module on display at the London Science Museum. (Photos: Richard and Sharron Kruse, 2009)

Apollo (CSM-106) Apollo 10 capsule Apollo CM (CSM-106)

Apollo 11 (CM-107)

Apollo 11 Command Module on display at the National Air and Space Museum. (Photos: Richard Kruse, 2008)

Apollo 11 (CM-107) View from top Apollo 11 (CM-107) side Apollo 11 (CM-107) side Apollo 11 (CM-107) heat shield Apollo 11 (CM-107) parachute compartment Apollo 11 (CM-107) hatch detail Apollo 11 (CM-107) hatch view Apollo 11 (CM-107) hatch


Apollo 11 flotation bags, displayed attached to an Apollo training capsule, on display at the Udvar-Hazy center. (Photos: Richard Kruse, 2009)

Flotation bags from Apollo 11 Flotation bags from Apollo 11 Flotation bags from Apollo 11 top view Close-up of Apollo flotation bags Flotation bags from Apollo 11

Apollo 12 (CM-108)

Apollo 12 Command Module, Yankee Clipper, on display at the Virginia Air and Space Center. (Photos: John Karpiej, 2005)

Apollo 12 hatch side Apollo 12 back side

Apollo 13 (CM-109)

Apollo 13 Command Module, Odyssey, on display at the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center. (Photos: Andrew Masterman, 2011)

Apollo 13 capsule Apollo 13 command module Apollo 13 command module interior

Apollo 14 (CM-110)

Apollo 14 Command Module, Kitty Hawk, on display at the Apollo Saturn 5 Center at Kennedy Space Center. (Photos: Jim Banke, 2012)

Apollo 14 space capsule

Apollo 15 (CM-112)

Apollo 15 Command Module on display in the National Museum of the United States Air Force. (Photos: Richard Kruse, 2008)

Apollo 15 (CM-112) Apollo 15 (CM-112) Front Apollo 15 (CM-112) Apollo 15 (CM-112) Rear Apollo 15 (CM-112) Apollo 15 (CM-112) Apollo 15 (CM-112) Hatch Apollo 15 (CM-112) Apollo 15 (CM-112) Apollo 15 (CM-112) Navigation

Apollo 16 (CM-113)

Apollo 16 Command Module on display at the United States Space and Rocket Center. (Photos: Richard Kruse, 2008)

Apollo 16 (CM-113) Front Apollo 16 (CM-113) Hatch Apollo 16 (CM-113) Right Side Apollo 16 (CM-113) Side Window Apollo 16 (CM-113) Forward Area

Apollo 17 (CM-114)

Apollo 17 Command Module on display at Space Center Houston. (Photos: Kevin Barrett, 2009)

Apollo 17 Capsule Apollo 17 Capsule Apollo 17 Capsule Apollo 17 Capsule Apollo 17 Capsule

Skylab 2 (CM-116)

Skylab 2 Command Module on display at the National Museum of Naval Aviation. Launched on 25May1973, astronauts Charles Conrad (Commander), Paul Weitz (Pilot) and Joseph Kerwin (Science Pilot) spent 28 days in space. (Photos: Richard Kruse, 2007)

Skylab I (CM-116) CSM-116

Skylab 3 (CM-117)

The Skylab 3 Command Module is on display at the Great Lakes Science Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Launched on 28Jul1973, astronauts Alan Bean (Commander), Jack Lousma (Pilot) and Owen Garriott (Science Pilot) spent 59 days in space.

No photos yet.

Skylab 4 (CM-118)

Skylab 4 Command Module on display at the National Air and Space Museum. Launched on 16Nov1973, astronauts Gerald Carr (Commander), William Pogue (Pilot) and Edward Gibson (Science Pilot) spent 84 days in space. (Photos: Richard Kruse, 2008)

Skylab 3 (CM-118) hatch area Skylab 3 (CM-118) port side Skylab 3 (CM-118) side view

Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (CM-111)

Launched in 1975, astronauts Thomas Stafford (Commander), Vance Brand (Command Module Pilot) and Donald Slayton (Docking Module Pilot) docked with the Russian Soyuz 19 spacecraft.

Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Command Module on display at the California Science Museum. (Photo: Andrew Masterman)

Apollo-Soyuz Capsule

Apollo CSM-119

Apollo Command and Service Module on display in the Saturn 5 Center at Kennedy Space Center.
CSM-119 served as the Skylab rescue vehicle and ASTP backup. (Photos: Kevin Reynolds, 2000)

CSM-119 command module CSM-119 thruster quad CSM-119 service module CSM-119 thruster quad CSM-119 front view CSM-119 rear view CSM-119 service propulsion system nozzle

Apollo Fuel Cell

Apollo Fuel Cell Simulator on display at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center. (Photos: Richard Kruse, 2007)

Apollo Fuel Cell view 1 Apollo Fuel Cell view 2 Apollo Fuel Cell view 3

Apollo Command Module Parts Identification

Apollo Command Module
1Roll Engines Parts of the Apollo Command Module
2Side window
3Rendezvous window
4Launch escape tower
leg wells
5Docking ring
6Forward hatch
7Docking probe
8Forward pitch engines
9Forward heat shield
10Crew access hatch
11Aft pitch engines
12Crew compartment
heat shield
13Aft heat shield

References

W. David Compton, Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions, NASA SP-4214. 1989.

Courtney G. Brooks, James M. Grimwood and Loyd S. Swenson Jr., Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft, NASA SP-4205, Washington, D.C., 1979.

Apollo Operations Handbook - Block II Spacecraft, NASA. 1969.

E. Cortright, ed. Apollo Expeditions to the Moon, NASA SP-350, Washington, D.C., 1975.

Charles D. Benson and William Barnaby Faherty, Moonport: - A History of Apollo Launch Facilities and Operations, NASA SP-4204. 1978.

Creative Commons License Images by Richard Kruse are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.


Historic Spacecraft Store


Additional Material About Apollo


Apollo book by Murray and Cox book

Apollo
By Charles Murray and Catherine Bly Cox.

Apollo Sourcebook book

Apollo: The Definitive Sourcebook
By Richard Orloff and David Harland

Book about Apollo 12

Apollo 12
On the Ocean of Storms
By David M. Harland.

Failure is not an option book

Failure Is Not an Option
Mission Control From Mercury to Apollo 13 and Beyond, By Gene Kranz.

Apollo Lunar Module book

Apollo 11
An Insight into the Hardware from the First Manned Mission to Land on the Moon.

Apollo Lunar Module book

Spacecraft Films Wave 1 Megapack
(Apollo 11 / Apollo 8 / The Mighty Saturns / Project Gemini)

Apollo Lunar Module book

The Mighty Saturns
Saturn I and IB
Spacecraft Films.