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Early Soviet Space Capsules

Vostok Spacecraft Vostok rocket illustration

Vostok Spacecraft

In 1961, Yuri Gagarin flew into space aboard Vostok 1. Gagarin became the first person to orbit the Earth.

Five more Vostok missions were launched. Valentina Tereshkova, launched aboard Vostok 6 in 1963, became the first woman to fly in space.

Vostok Missions
NameLaunch
Date
OrbitsCrewMission
Vostok 1 12 APR 1961 1 Yuri GagarinFirst human in orbit.
Vostok 2 6 AUG 1961 17 Gherman TitovOrbital flight
Vostok 3 11 AUG 1962 64 Andriyan NikolayevOrbital flight
Vostok 4 12 AUG 1962 48 Pavel PopovichOrbital flight
Vostok 5 14 JUN 1963 82 Valery BykovskyOrbital flight
Vostok 6 16 JUN 1963 48 Valentina TereshkovaFirst woman in space.

Voskhod Spacecraft Voskhod rocket illustration

Voskhod Spacecraft

Voskhod 1, launched in 1964, included the first three-person crew. Voskhod 2, launched the following year, included the first spacewalk. Connected to the spacecraft with a tether, Alexey Leonov spent around ten minutes drifting in space.

Vostok Missions
NameLaunch
Date
OrbitsCrewMission
Voskhod 112 OCT 1964 16 Vladimir Komarov
Boris Yegorov
Konstantin Feoktistov
Orbital flight.
Voskhod 218 MAR 1965 17 Pavel Belyayev
Alexey Leonov
First spacewalk.

Soviet SK-1 Space Suit

Yuri Gagarin's SK-1 Training Space Suit

Spacesuit worn by Yuri Gagarin while training for his spaceflight. This suit is on display at the National Air and Space Museum. (Photos: Richard Kruse, 2009)

Yuri Gagarin Space suit Yuri Gagarin Space suit Yuri Gagarin Space suit closeup Yuri Gagarin Space suit gloves

Soviet Berkut Space Suit

Aleksei Leonov's Berkut Training Space Suit

Spacesuit worn by Aleksei Leonov while training for his spacewalk. Exhibit also includes part of an airlock used in training. This suit is on display at the National Air and Space Museum. (Photos: Richard Kruse, 2009)

Aleksei Leonov Space suit Aleksei Leonov Space suit Aleksei Leonov Space suit Voskhod airlock
Creative Commons License Images by Richard Kruse are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.

Historic Spacecraft Store

Books with Information About Russian and Soviet Spaceflight

The Soviet Space Race with Apollo

The Soviet Space Race with Apollo
By Asif A. Siddiqi.

Book about Korolev

Korolev
By James Harford.

Energiya-Buran book

Energiya-Buran
By Bart Hendrickx.

The Rocket Men book

The Rocket Men
By Rex Hall and David J. Shayler.